By Cotton F.A., Wilkinson G.
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Extra info for Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. A Comprehensive Text
There are mainly ﬁve types of sensitivity . 1 Sensitivity to Impact This represents the ease with which an explosive can be set off by a blow impact and is expressed in terms of the distance through which a standard weight is allowed to drop to cause an explosive to explode. 2 Sensitivity to Friction This represents the ease with which an explosive can be set off by a blow friction and is expressed in terms of what occurs when a pendulum of known weight scrapes across an explosive (ignites or explodes or snaps or crackles).
3 Sensitivity and Sensitiveness These two terms: ‘sensitivity’ and ‘sensitiveness’ are referred in the context of explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics and relate to two rather similar properties of explosives that is, ‘ease of initiation’ and ‘propagating capability’. In some circles, it is customary to use ‘sensitivity’ to mean ‘ease of initiation’ whereas 20 1 Salient Features of Explosives ‘sensitiveness’ to mean ‘propagating capability’. In others, the converse is believed to be true and in yet others, these terms are used synonymously.
Subsequently, Bowden and Yoffe developed a well-known concept of ‘hot spots’ and the initiation of explosion from ‘hot spots’ created by thermal factors, crystal hardness and shapes . According to Bowden and Yoffe, when a solid or liquid explosive is subjected to impact or friction, the explosion which may result is generally thermal in origin. That is to say the mechanical energy is ﬁrst degraded to heat and concentrated in a small localized region to form a ‘hot spot’. The size of the ‘hot spot’ is of the order of 10−3 to 10−5 cm in diameter.
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry. A Comprehensive Text by Cotton F.A., Wilkinson G.