Download e-book for kindle: Agricultural Development in Jiangnan, 1620–1850 by Bozhong Li

By Bozhong Li

ISBN-10: 1191331571

ISBN-13: 9781191331579

ISBN-10: 1349111856

ISBN-13: 9781349111855

ISBN-10: 1349111872

ISBN-13: 9781349111879

The writer makes a radical research of adjustments in key elements of construction and in styles of growth in agricultural creation in China's Yangzi delta in the course of the 3 centuries sooner than 1850, leading to a rise in either land and exertions productiveness.

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Extra info for Agricultural Development in Jiangnan, 1620–1850

Example text

As I have demonstrated elsewhere, beginning in the late Ming Jiangnan scholars worried about the potential danger of population increases outstripping economic growth. They made clear that popUlation growth should be under control if people wanted to keep their living standards from falling. Jiangnan people of the early and mid-Qing period appear to have understood scholars' concerns since they employed a wide range of methods of control population growth, including infanticide, delayed marriage, a lower proportion of those ever married, abortion, contraception, sterilization and the like.

It is difficult to guess the early seventeenth-century urbanization level. Liu Ts'ui-jung suggested that the natural increase in late Ming and early Qing Jiangnan urban areas was higher than in rural areas, and immigration was also higher than emigration (Liu Ts'ui-jung, 1987). Jiangnan market towns were far more numerous in the mid-Qing than in late Ming (Liu Shih-chi, 1978a). There is little doubt, therefore, that the urbanization level in mid-Qing Jiangnan was much higher than that of the late Ming.

When used as fertilizer, they were crumbled up and spread in the fields. Oilcake was also frequently used as fodder, bean cake for pigs and cotton cake for cows. The black excrement of silk worms was often applied directly to the fields as fertilizer, while in some places it was also used as fish food. In addition, Jiangnan peasants dragged up river mud and spread it on the fields, with or without processing, to improve the top soil eroded by rain. Because the rainfall was sometimes too great and at other times not enough, peasants often had to irrigate or drain the fields, with human labour or draft animals activating squarepallet chain pumps of various sizes.

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Agricultural Development in Jiangnan, 1620–1850 by Bozhong Li


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