By A.G. Buckley, J-.L. Goffin
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Extra info for Algorithms for Constrained Minimization of Smooth Nonlinear Functions
The consecutive reaction of ethylene oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid does not seem to be important on these materials, as well as the hydration of ethylene to ethanol followed by oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Rather, since the reactions of ethylene and acetic acid formation occur through parallel routes, aelimination steps of the ethoxide intermediate is proposed to directly lead to acetaldehyde and acetic acid. . The a-elimination step was found to be favoured at lower temperatures than the j3-elimination one, and to possibly occur at different sites [131, 132].
This band has been attributed to the stretching vibration of Sb5+=O [174, 188], likely present on the surface of the rutile antimonate, and possibly constituting an active site for the propane arnmoxidation. Indeed, this vibration could be due to the presence of SbOx-rich domains in the outer zones of non-stoichiometric rutile crystallites. It is known that in nonstoichiometric FeSbO4 prepared by thermal treatment at 8oo o e, having excess antimony in the structure, and characterized by a cell volume for the tetragonal cell higher than that of stoichiometric FeSbO4 and by the presence of the IR band at 820 cm-\ a treatment at 10000e leads to i) a decrease in the cell volume, which becomes similar to that of stoichiometric rutile, and ii) a strong decrease in the intensity of the mentioned IR absorption band .
A flow sheet of the process is illustrated in Figure 2. In this case the catalyst described has the following empirical formula: MOo37Reo2sVo26Nboo7Sboo3Caoop" and is analogous to that described by . A summary of catalyst compositions and performances described in papers and patents is reported in Table 2. 32 F. Cavani, and F. TrifIro O2 , CO, purge CO2, HO abs rptio t wer O2 Hp CH3COOH,HP Fig. 2. SimplifIed flow-sheet of the Standard Oil process for oxidation of ethane to acetic acid. 1 Characteristics of Catalysts Based on MoNlNb Mixed Oxides Catalysts made of MoN INb mixed oxides possess unique reactivity properties, and are able to activate and oxidize paraffins at low temperature, with performances which are rather unique, starting from substrates having very different reactivity properties, like ethane and propane.
Algorithms for Constrained Minimization of Smooth Nonlinear Functions by A.G. Buckley, J-.L. Goffin