By Donald C. Daniel
The idea that ballistic missile submarines or SSBs are hugely survivable is the first the reason is, they've got grow to be considered as the final word guarantors of nuclear deterrence and as a result, of strategic balance. however, because the first deployment of SSBNs greater than 20 years in the past, it's been the perform of many Western ( and possibly additionally Soviet) policy-makers and observers to be prudently skeptical concerning the survivability of the submarines within the long-term. The expression of such perspectives was once often associated with allusions to potential anti-submarine battle (ASW) advancements, yet, other than probably within the previous couple of years, such assertions had no major o lasting impact at the consensus that the submarines could most likely stay survivable.
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Additional resources for Anti-Submarine Warfare and Superpower Strategic Stability
The mines might also be programmed with an 'identification friend or foe' (IFF) system allowing free passage to the SSBN but not to trailers. In short, there are numerous sets of factors which are likely to affect the success of trailing. These include the number of units available for trailing, naturally-produced environmental conditions, countermeasures by SSBNs and allied forces, and the requirements imposed by the overt or covert nature of the attempt. Of these sets of factors, that most under the trailer's own control is the number of units; for instance, a nation determined on trailing could ensure that it always has two to three trailers per opposing SSBN.
While salinity, for the most part, remains relatively uniform in most oceans, temperature and pressure do not. Changes in them can make for highly complex sound propagation paths, especially where temperature decreases with depth (as it normally does), while pressure invariably increases. The bending of sound waves can give rise to 'shadow zones', that is, areas where sound does not penetrate. This means that a hydrophone might not hear a submarine even though both were quite close and in the same temperature layer.
This might be done either by the SSBN or by the forces acting in support of it, and the latter could do so in the context of acting as 'gatekeepers' or 'delousers'. Alternatively several friendly submarines might join together to confuse and, if necessary, to harass the trailers. Yet another measure is obviously to have friendly submarines trail the trailers and be ready to take instant 24 Generic Considerations action against them should it be deemed necessary, although communicating the orders to attack before the enemy can sink the SSBN may prove difficult.
Anti-Submarine Warfare and Superpower Strategic Stability by Donald C. Daniel