By G. Müller (auth.), Professor Dr. H.-Peter Berlien, Professor Dr.-Ing. Gerhard J. Müller (eds.)
The heritage of laser purposes in medication begins al within the early Nineteen Nineties a concerted motion application such a lot with the discovery of the laser itself. backed by means of the eu fee was once performed in Europe for the dissemination of the secure use of It was once just a couple of months after Maiman's invention lasers in medication, and in 1996 an identical application was once whilst this new high-intensity gentle resource was once used for scientific functions. mild as a healing software constructed with Russia. It was once this German--Russian had lengthy been utilized in medication, in particular in oph cooperation that resulted in a Russian model of the Ger thalmology and dermatology. consequently, those disci guy unique loose-leaf instruction manual. The editors genuine plines have been the 1st to use this new software. ized an ever-growing call for for an English model of this instruction manual, too. as a result, the editors are very even if the early effects weren't as promising as thankful to the Springer publishing condominium for aid anticipated, a brand new box for clinical analysis and deal with ment have been outlined. lots of the problems within the ing the English version of the German original.
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Extra info for Applied Laser Medicine
L. Basic design of an HeNe laser Fig. 2. Typical design of a discharge tube with a Brewster window Brewster window indicated in Fig. 2, one direction of polarization of the laser radiation will be amplified loss-free while all other directions are suppressed. Due to the weak amplification of the HeNe system, Brewster windows are employed in many instances. This will cause the polarization in one direction of the laser radiation. The energy level scheme of HeNe lasers is indicated in Fig. 3. The energy is supplied by an electric discharge: the metastable levels 21s and 23 S of the He atoms are excited by electron impact; the energy is then transferred by collision with Ne atoms to the energetically neighbouring 3s and 2s levels of the neon.
The various wavelengths emitted depend on the combination of the noble gases and the halogen (see Table O. Figure 3 indicates the most important laser lines and their relative intensities. A typical excimer laser operates at a total pressure of the laser medium of 2 - 3 bar and at a repetition rate of up to 1000 Hz. Typically, an excimer laser system achieves a pulse duration in the region from 10 to several 100 ns; presently the average power output is up to 200 W. The laser medium must be exchanged after an appropriate operating time of the laser; it depends essentially on the noble gas - halogen combination used.
By using Q-switching, typical pulse energies of up to a few Joule can be reached. Modern flash lamps achieve lifetimes of more than 107 discharges. Continuously pumped lasers can also employ Qswitching. In this case, much higher repetition rates in the MHz range - are possible. However, for pulsed Nd:YAG lasers, the achievable repetition rates are almost 3 orders of magnitude lower. Due to its reduced efficiency, cw pumping achieves a considerably lower pulse power and pulse energy. Approximately constant pulse power can be delivered for a a repetition frequency which is associated with the lifetime of the upper laser level (for Nd:YAG this is about 250 Jls).
Applied Laser Medicine by G. Müller (auth.), Professor Dr. H.-Peter Berlien, Professor Dr.-Ing. Gerhard J. Müller (eds.)