By Hans Pauly
This booklet completes the actual foundations and experimental suggestions defined in quantity 1 with an up-to-date assessment of the accent gear crucial in molecular beam experiments. It extends the topic to cluster beams and beams of hyperthermal and subthermal energies. As in quantity 1, a distinct attempt is made to stipulate the actual foundations of a few of the experimental ideas. consequently this ebook is meant not just as a reference regular for researchers within the box, but in addition to deliver the flavour of present molecular beam examine to complicated undergraduates and graduate scholars and to allow them to achieve a great history within the box and its technique.
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Additional info for Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams II: Cluster Beams, Fast and Slow Beams, Accessory Equipment and Applications
4 Hollow Cathode Discharges To generate metastable atom bearns in the energy range of 1 to 10 eV, Verster and co-workers have developed a reliable source which is based on a hollow cathode arc discharge, in which metastables are produced by both electron impact and heavy particle collisions [Theuws et al. (1977), (1982)]. Intensities of 10 13 and 10 14 atorns/s sr (for krypton and argon, respectively) have been measured. The broad velocity distribution of the emerging metastable atoms ( 1-1 O eV) makes velocity selection necessary.
9. Details of the photodetachment region [Stephen et al. (1996)]. (1) deflection plates, (2) einzel lens, (3) detachment laser beam (perpendicular to the drawing plane), (4) ion repeller, (5) ion collector l. Fast Beams, Production and Detection 19 energies below 50 eV to counteract the space-charge spread ofthe ion beam. Subsequently, electron detachment occurs within the cavity of a 25 W argon ion laser. The intracavity laser axis crosses the plane of Fig. 9 perpendicularly. Depending on the laser configuration used, neutralization efficiencies (at an energy of 5 eV) between 5 and 25% are observed.
The remaining o- ions in the beam are fmally forced to the ion collector (5) by the ion repeller (4). Here, the difference in the arriving o- currents with the laser onor off can be accurately measured yielding the neutralization efficiency. Since the probability of electron detachment is proportional to the residence time of the ions in the laser field, the neutralization efficiency decreases with increasing partide velocity v as 1/v. To increase the efficiency of neutralization at higher beam velocities, mirror devices (multipass cells) are usually used, in which the laser beam crosses the ion beam many times [Anheier et al.
Atom, Molecule, and Cluster Beams II: Cluster Beams, Fast and Slow Beams, Accessory Equipment and Applications by Hans Pauly