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Soc. 61: 343–348 (1984). 53. , and M. S. Patent 5,849,939 (1998). 54. S. Patent 2,383,601 (1945). 55. , and T. S. Patent 4,164,506 (1979). 56. , E. Peukert, and G. S. Patent 4,698,186 (1987). 57. J. Michalski, S. Runyon, A. M. Scott, Production of FAME from Acid Oil, a By-Product of Vegetable Oil Refining, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 80: 97–102 (2003). 58. , S. Bloomer, and K. S. Patent 6,399,800 (2002). 59. H. Hammond, L. Yu, and A. Monyem, Determining the Influence of Contaminants on Biodiesel Properties, SAE Technical Paper Series 971685, SAE, Warrendale, PA, 1997.

This problem can occur in both biodiesel and petrodiesel fuel and can result in acidic fuel and sludge that will plug fuel filters. Sediment may consist of suspended rust and dirt particles or it may originate from the fuel as insoluble compounds formed during fuel oxidation. Some biodiesel users have noted that switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel causes an increase in sediment originating from deposits on the walls of fuel tanks that had previously contained petrodiesel fuel. Because its solvent properties are different from those of petrodiesel fuel, biodiesel may loosen these sediments and cause fuel filter plugging during the transition period.

The glycerol stream leaving the separator is only ~50% glycerol. It contains some of the excess methanol and most of the catalyst and soap. In this form, the glycerol has little value and disposal may be difficult. The methanol content requires the glycerol to be treated as hazardous waste. The first step in refining the glycerol is usually to add acid to split the soaps into FFA and salts. The FFA are not soluble in the glycerol and will rise to the top where they can be removed and recycled. Mittelbach and Koncar (53) described a process for esterifying these FFA and then returning them to the transesterification reaction stream.

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Biodiesel Handbook The by edited by J.S. Bhatti ... [et al.].


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