By Ronald L. Crawford, Don L. Crawford
Commercial and agricultural task all through this century has resulted in significant infection of soil and groundwater assets through dangerous chemical compounds. The means of bioremediation makes use of dwelling organisms--usually micro organism and fungi--to eliminate pollution from soil and water with minimum disturbance to those environments. This technique, that's in all likelihood less costly than conventional thoughts similar to incineration of soils and carbon filtration of water, calls for an figuring out of ways organisms remodel chemical compounds, how they live to tell the tale in polluted environments, and the way they are often utilized in the sphere. This ebook examines those matters for lots of of the main critical and customary environmental contaminants, featuring the newest place at the program of bioremediation to polluted soil and water.
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Extra resources for Bioremediation: Principles and Applications (Biotechnology Research)
A. 1. Anaerobic-aerobic process for wastewater treatment. reductions of 4 to 10kg/m 3 /day can be obtained with residence times from 4 to 18 h (Schuegerl, 1987). A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor process has been used to metabolize hexachlorobenzene (HCB), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and chloroform (CF) (Fathepure & Vogel, 1991). Reductive chlorination is relatively rapid for these compounds and other highly chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride and 1,1,1-trichloroethane.
1994). Full-scale slurry-phase biological treatment of wood-preserving wastes. In Bioremediation of Chlorinated and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Compounds, ed. R. E. Hinchee, A. Leeson, L. Semprini & S. K. Ong, pp. 480-3. Boca Raton, FL: Lewis Publishers, CRC Press. Johnson, L. D. & James, R. H. (1989). Sampling and analysis of hazardous wastes. In Standard Handbook of Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal, ed. H. M. Freeman, pp. 44. New York: McGraw-Hill. Kaake, R. , Stevens, T. L. L. (1992).
Anaerobic slurry reactors have recently been developed to treat soil contaminated with compounds such as trinitrotoluene (TNT) and other munitions compounds that are more readily degraded anaerobically than aerobically. , 1993). This process has been scaled up to a 60 000 liter reactor to treat soil contaminated with munitions waste and with 2-jef-butyl-4,6 dinitrophenol (dinoseb). The mixing intensity for anaerobic slurry reactors can be much less than for aerobic slurry reactors. Off-bottom suspension or on-bottom motion is sufficient, in contrast to the complete uniform suspension required for good aeration.
Bioremediation: Principles and Applications (Biotechnology Research) by Ronald L. Crawford, Don L. Crawford