By R. Edward Hendrick PhD, FACR (auth.)
Breast MRI has emerged as a precious diagnostic adjunct to mammography and breast ultrasound within the detection of basic and recurrent breast cancers and as an incredible screening device in ladies at excessive chance for breast melanoma. nonetheless, many radiologists who depend upon MRI don't have wisdom of the basics necessary to attaining and preserving excessive photo caliber. With a spotlight at the uncomplicated imaging rules of breast MRI instead of on mathematical equations, this ebook takes a pragmatic method of breast imaging that is helping radiologists enhance their breast MRI protocols. The textual content walks the reader during the fundamentals of MRI, making it specially available to newcomers. From a close define of kit necessities for acquiring prime quality breast MRI to directions on tips to optimize snapshot caliber, accelerated discussions on easy methods to receive optimized dynamic info, and examples of excellent and undesirable imaging thoughts, the e-book covers the subjects correct to acting top of the range breast MRI. by means of offering the major points of breast MRI in an easy demeanour and with transparent photographs, this functional e-book merits all practitioners trying to elevate their operating wisdom and competence in breast MRI, and can also be of price to citizens getting ready for board checks in diagnostic radiology.
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Additional resources for Breast MRI: Fundamentals and Technical Aspects
For the breast, an ideal receiver coil would be a set of loops just large enough to accommodate both breasts, the axilla and chest wall. Since patients and their breast sizes vary markedly, ideally sites would have a series of properly tuned coils of varying sizes that just fit each breast size or a coil with a sensitive volume that would adjust to the size of each patient. Most breast coils are single-sized and tend to accommodate larger breasts, at the expense of decreased SNR for smaller breasts.
In addition to using NMR as analytic tools to determine the chemical constituents of materials, by the early 1970s, researchers were beginning to measure NMR relaxation parameters of excised tissue samples. In so doing, they learned that tissue relaxation times differ between normal and diseased tissues. 3 To a physicist, one of the remarkable aspects of MRI is that the signal coming from a hydrogen nucleus, which has a size of about 10−15 meters (m), is sensitive to macroscopic disease in tissue.
2, which are MHz or tens of MHz. 4 MHz/T. 3 MHz. The frequency shift between hydrogen in fat and hydrogen in water of 214 Hz is extremely small compared to the difference of 3,300,000 Hz between resonant frequencies of hydrogen and fluorine. Most NMR spectrometers have small bore sizes that accommodate only small samples, because it is easier and less expensive to build a magnet with a uniform magnetic field over a small volume. Thus, typical spectrometer bore sizes are 10 cm or less. NMR spectrometers usually lack the magnetic gradients necessary to separate the sample into individual voxels.
Breast MRI: Fundamentals and Technical Aspects by R. Edward Hendrick PhD, FACR (auth.)