By Vladimir Ponec and Geoffrey C. Bond (Eds.)
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Extra info for Catalysis by Metals and Alloys
0 36 However, the question is whether the popularity of the 5 values is justified. They have been derived from hypothetical electronic structures using empirical equations for Structure and properties of metals and alloys 23 R(1)'s. It is doubtful whether equation 28 from which the argument starts and which holds for C-C bonds and the bond order n greater than one, can be applied to metal-metal bonds and n less than one. Hume-Rothery  collected some results which contradicted Pauling's statements on this point.
G. core level shifts, on various compounds of this type indicate that most likely there is no electron transfer at all (see chapter 3), but formation of strong partially-localized bonds takes place between unlike elements (see chapter 2). The practical success of this theory is indisputable. It is almost impossible to check the stability experimentally and to make some predictions concerning phase diagrams of all alloys of potential interest for material sciences. Miedema's theory, however, offers a certain tool for making rough but useful predictions, where experimental results are lacking.
G. for palladium and copper . Occupation of the antibonding rt-orbitals of adsorbed CO is increased when an positive ion is placed near to oxygen atom or the centre of the C-O bond. This is an electrostatic and not a binding effect, since placing a point charge without any orbital has the same effect . When temperature is increased, more electrons can be raised into the rt*-antibonding orbitals. A higher temperature also activates the tilt of the C-O axis  away from the most stable orientation  and towards the metal surface.
Catalysis by Metals and Alloys by Vladimir Ponec and Geoffrey C. Bond (Eds.)