By Peter B. Golden
"A massive quarter stretching approximately from the Volga River to Manchuria and the northern chinese language borderlands, crucial Asia has been referred to as the 'pivot of history,' a land the place nomadic invaders and Silk highway investors replaced the destinies of states that ringed its borders, together with pre-modern Europe, the center East, and China. In significant Asia in global background, Peter B. Golden offers an interesting account of this crucial sector, starting from prehistory to the current, and focusing principally at the special melting pot of cultures that this area has produced. Golden describes the investors who braved the warmth and chilly alongside caravan routes to hyperlink East Asia and Europe; the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and his successors, the most important contiguous land empire in historical past; the discovery of gunpowder, which allowed the nice sedentary empires to beat the horse-based nomads; the facility struggles of Russia and China, and later Russia and Britain, for regulate of the world. ultimately, he discusses the sector this present day, a key quarter that pals such geopolitical scorching spots as Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and China"--Provided by way of writer. Read more... creation: a layering of peoples -- the increase of nomadism and oasis city-states -- The early nomads: "sarfare is their company" -- Heavenly Qaghans: the Türks and their successors -- The towns of the Silk highway and the arriving of Islam -- Crescent over the Steppe: Islam and the Turkic peoples -- The Mongol whirlwind -- The later Chinggisids, Temür and the Timurid renaissance -- The age of tunpowder and the overwhelm of empires -- the issues of modernity
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He saw himself as the culmination of the prophetic traditions of Zoroaster, Buddha, and Jesus. Manichaeism combined aspects of all of these religions, everywhere adjusting its proﬁle to suit local sensibilities. Nonetheless, most governments distrusted its otherworldliness and persecuted its followers. Manichaeans viewed the world as engulfed in a conﬂict between Evil, represented by matter and Good, a spiritual plane represented by light. Their purpose was to release the light/spirit from matter, by leading ascetic lives and avoiding as much as possible material-physical temptations.
At its height, the Kushan Empire included Bactria, parts of eastern Iran, western and eastern Turkestan, as well as Pakistan (Peshawar served as one of its capitals). Although one of the most powerful and important states of its age, Kushan political history, T h e Earl y No m a ds: “ Wa r f a r e i s T h e i r B u s i n e s s ” 31 which has been largely reconstructed from coins and archaeological ﬁnds, is murky. Scholars remain divided on the dates of the reigns of the known Kushan rulers. They appear to have reached the apogee of their power sometime in the mid-second century ce, in particular under Kanishka I (ruling, perhaps, about 120–143 ce), possibly a greatgrandson of Kujula Kadphises, or Huvishka, who ascended the throne some four years after Kanishka’s death and appears to have ruled for thirty-two years.
Are the Chionitae, Huns, and others bearing similar-sounding names simply the Xiongnu of the Chinese borderlands? Scholars disagree on this matter. 23 The rise and fall of the Xiongnu had pushed various nomadic peoples, in particular Turkic groupings, away from the Chinese and Mongolian borderlands and brought them westward to the Kazakh steppes. What seems most likely is that a tribal union containing some core elements associated with the original Xiongnu and continuing to bear this very prestigious name among the steppe nomads, made its way into Kazakhstan.
Central Asia in world history by Peter B. Golden