By Robert L Grob; Leo M L Nollet
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Extra info for Chromatographic analysis of the environment
Environ. Contam. , 101, 117– 154, 1988. 19. Connell, D. W. and Hawker, D. , Use of polynomial expressions to describe the bioconcentration of hydrophobic chemicals by ﬁsh, Ecotoxicol. Environ. , 16, 242–257, 1988. 20. Phillips, D. J. H. and Rainbow, P. , Biomonitoring of Trace Aquatic Contaminants, Environmental Management Series, Chapman & Hall, London, 1994. 21. Philips, D. J. , London, 1980. 22. Burton, M. A. , Biological Monitoring of Environmental Contaminants (Plants), MARC Report No. 32, Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre, King’s College, London, 1986.
These may include basic “commonsense rules” such as avoiding any unnecessary disturbance to a site prior to collecting samples, for example, standing downstream and collecting upstream during sampling in ﬂowing streams. In addition, items of equipment should be checked for cleanliness and their proper working order veriﬁed before they are taken into the ﬁeld. Where automatic sampling devices are used, timing mechanisms should be checked to ensure that timed samples are able to be taken at the times intended.
While some uncertainty factors associated with the use of these sampling techniques remain, such as their representativeness as mimics of biota uptake and measures of bioavailable fractions, as well as issues relating to biofouling and nonlinear uptake, the utility of these new sampling tools in part reﬂects the limitations of the other techniques available. Accordingly, these sampling techniques provide an additional set of tools often useful for modern monitoring programs. 5 illustrate the range of passive sampling devices developed for application in sampling trace contaminants in the aquatic environment.
Chromatographic analysis of the environment by Robert L Grob; Leo M L Nollet