By Fred W. Turek Ph.D. (auth.), Marta Garaulet, Jose M. Ordovás (eds.)
Circadian rhythms are such an innate a part of our lives that we not often pause to invest why they even exist. a few reviews have instructed that the disruption of the circadian approach can be causal for weight problems and manifestations of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Shift-work, sleep-deprivation and bright-light-exposure at evening are concerning elevated adiposity (obesity) and occurrence of MetS. it's been supplied proof of clock genes expression in human adipose tissue and proven its organization with varied parts of the MetS. furthermore, present reviews are illustrating the actual function of alternative clock genes variations and their expected haplotypes in MetS.
The goal of “Chronobiology and weight problems” is to explain the mechanisms implicated within the interplay among chonodisruption and metabolic-related health problems, comparable to weight problems and MetS, with diverse approaches.
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Sarabia JA, Rol MA, Mendiola P, Madrid JA (2008) Circadian rhythm of wrist temperature in normal-living subjects A candidate of new index of the circadian system. Physiol Behav 95:570–580 48. Ortiz-Tudela E, Martinez-Nicolas A, Rol MA, Campos M, Madrid JA (2011) A new integrated index, based on thermometry, actimetry and body position (TAP) to evaluate circadian system status in human. PLoS Comput Biol 6(11):e1000996 49. Raymann RJ, Swaab DF, Van Someren EJ (2008) Skin deep: enhanced sleep depth by cutaneous temperature manipulation.
New data suggest that there is a temporal component in the regulation of all these adipose tissue functions. In fact, studies performed by microarrays have shown that a certain percentage of active genes expressed in adipose tissue in both humans and animal models follow a daily rhythmic pattern. Examples of these genes are clock genes (PER2, CLOCK, CRY1, and BMAL1), adipokine genes (adiponectin and leptin), and glucocorticoid-related genes among others. Thus, an adequate temporal order in the daily pattern of these genes implicated in adipose tissue metabolism could have important consequences not only in body fat distribution but also in the metabolic alterations associated to obesity.
Es M. M. 1007/978-1-4614-5082-5_3, © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 29 30 ApM1 Acrp30 GBP28 AdipoQ ADIPOR1 ADIPOR2 TZDs IL-6 ASP PAI-1 TGF-beta GCs HPA GR 11DHC 11bHSD1 11bHSD2 STAR 5aR PPARg PCR AT WAT BAT SWAT or SAT VWAT or VAT IAAT FFAs TGs MetS SCN LPL Pdp1 RORa PGC1a PER2 BMAL1 or ARNTL or MOP3 CLOCK CRY mRNA CCG ASCs ACTH P. Gómez-Abellán and M. Garaulet Adipose most abundant gene transcript 1 or adiponectin Adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa or adiponectin Gelatin binding protein of 28 kDa or adiponectin Adiponectin Adiponectin receptor 1 Adiponectin receptor 2 Thiazolidinediones Interleukin 6 Acylation stimulating protein Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 Transforming growth factor-beta Glucocorticoids Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal Glucocorticoid receptor 11-Dehydrocorticosterone 11b-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 11b-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 Teroidogenic acute regulatory protein 5-a reductase Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma Polymerase reaction chain Adipose tissue White adipose tissue Brown adipose tissue Subcutaneous adipose tissue Visceral adipose tissue Intra-abdominal adipose tissue Free fatty acids Triglycerides Metabolic syndrome Suprachiasmatic nucleus Lipoprotein lipase PAR domain protein 1 RAR-related orphan receptor alpha Peroxisome proliferative activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 alpha Period homolog 2 (Drosophila) Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like Circadian locomotor output cycles kaput Cryptochrome Messenger ribonucleic acid Clock control genes Adipose-derived stem cells Adrenocorticotropic hormone 3 Adipose Tissue as a Peripheral Clock 31 Adipose Tissue as Endocrine Organ Classically, adipose tissue has been regarded as a passive reservoir for energy storage, but this traditional point of view is no longer valid.
Chronobiology and Obesity by Fred W. Turek Ph.D. (auth.), Marta Garaulet, Jose M. Ordovás (eds.)