By Shao Jiang (auth.)
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Extra info for Citizen Publications in China Before the Internet
In China, the existence of minkan from 1949 to 1989 neither depended on a bourgeois society, nor had the condition of a free market. The classical form of a public sphere existed in China only during the Republican period from 1911 to 1948, when social organizations and even opposition parties were legally sanctioned, and despite repression, there was a certain degree of media freedom. The trading of information at this time was more comparable to the business Minkan k as a Way off Resistance M 19 of exchanging ideas practiced in Europe in the seventeenth century.
Unofficial magazines experienced sequences of flourishing, crackdown, and republication, transforming their underground status. I will be discussing Enlightenment, Exploration, Beijing Spring, and April Fifth Tribune (AFT) from this period. Chapter 5, “Development and Transformation” (1980–89), examines minkan in the 1980s, the decade that saw the transformation of Minkan k as a Way off Resistance M 29 unofficial magazines and the development of society. Although the Democracy Wall movement had been effectively repressed, the issues it gave rise to became widely debated in the following decade.
These underground publications were an irreplaceable source of information for a broad audience, having a wide-ranging influence in spite of their format as small handmade editions. 64 From the mid-1970s onward, exiles and domestic activists set up collaborative support networks that formed multiple centers from which to practice resistance. These networks provided dismantled mimeographs or equipment parts that could be smuggled into the countries and then reassembled. Special libraries for collecting these samizdat and tamizdat were set up in Germany and Austria.
Citizen Publications in China Before the Internet by Shao Jiang (auth.)