Collection of Liu Zongyuan (Chinese classical literature by 柳宗元 PDF

By 柳宗元

ISBN-10: 7101024432

ISBN-13: 9787101024432

  柳宗元,字子厚,是我国唐代杰出的文学家和著名的思想家。他祖籍河东,人称柳河东,曾贬官柳州,因又称柳柳州。他出身于官僚地主家庭,二十一岁中进士,二十六岁第博学宏词科,授集贤殿书院正字,后又任蓝田尉,监察御史裹行。贞元二十一年,与刘禹锡等一起参加主张政治革新的王叔文集团,升任礼部员外郎。不久,革新失败,被贬为永州司马。十年后,改内贬为柳州刺史。又四年,病逝于柳州,年四十七岁。
  柳宗元一生,经历了代宗、德宗、顺宗、宪宗四朝,但他的主要活动是在贞元、元和时期。这时经过历时八年的安史之乱,唐王朝已开始走下坡路,为旧时史家称道的所谓盛唐时代已经一去不返。这场大乱以后,地主阶级和农民阶级的矛盾、地主阶级内部各个阶层和各个集团之间的矛盾,不仅没有缓和,而且都造一步激化了。藩镇军阀依然拥兵割据,并且从河北四镇扩展到内地。

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Businesses can meet these fluctuations in demand by expanding and contracting the number of work hours—if the law permits. In El Salvador, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden and Uganda the working day can extend to more than 12 hours a day in peak periods. But in the Philippines and Ukraine the maximum is 8 hours. In both countries there are restrictions on night and weekend work, so the employer cannot use 2 shifts. These rigidities allegedly increase worker welfare. 13 Difficulty of firing A barrier to firing is a barrier to hiring.

Durand-Lasserve and Royston (2002). 9. Fields (2002). 10. Based on analysis of the Doing Business indicators with firm level data on the perceived security of property rights, as reported in Batra and others (2003). 11. World Bank (2002). 12. Land Equity International (2003). 13. In Moldova and Ukraine the expedited procedure does not cut total time because they are performed simultaneously with procedures that take a longer time. 14. Anderson-Saito and Dhar (2004). 15. Ellis (2004). 16. Fafchamps and Quisumbing (2002), Katz and Chamorro (2002).

Differences across countries are enormous. Saudi Arabia, with the 10th most flexible employment regulations, has no restrictive regulations on hiring and firing but regulates weekend work. Angola, with the 10th most rigid regulations, regulates heavily every aspect of work hours and firing, but allows term contracts with 5-year duration. Source: Doing Business database. 4 Difficult to fire workers in some countries Who pays what to fire? Severance cost in weeks of salary equivalence Difficulty of firing index 50 Sub-Saharan Africa 48 South Asia Highest 100 Tunisia Uzbekistan 65 49 42 43 Europe & Central Asia MORE RIGIDITY 29 5 most expensive countries: Sierra Leone 188 Lao PDR 185 Guatemala 170 Brazil 165 Egypt, Arab Rep.

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Collection of Liu Zongyuan (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:柳宗元集) by 柳宗元


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