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Additional info for Collection of Lu Ji (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:陆机集)
In the mid-1430s, the Imperial bureaucracy decided to end this outreach, citing both costs and unwanted cultural influence. Imperial China retracted to its vast lands. Merchants of the Empire’s two southern provinces, distant from the capital’s reach, continued to trade across the seas but without state support and thus without military backing. 15 15 Teobaldo Filesi, China and Africa in the Middle Ages, transl. L. , The Great Chinese Travelers (Chicago, 1974), 24 dirk hoerder At the time of Zheng He’s voyages, the rulers of tiny, coastal, Iberian Portugal, recognizing they were short of resources and land for a growing population, supported seafarers’ outreach and militarized mercantile voyaging.
Bernhard Klein and Gesa Mackenthun (New York, 2004), 111–130. For sailors on slave ships see Emma Christopher, Slave Ship Sailors and Their Cargoes, 1730–1807 (New York, 2006). Integrated views of the (North) Atlantic include Alan L. Karras, and John R. , Atlantic American Societies. , Labor Migration in the Atlantic Economies. , 1985). 42 This section is based on Hoerder, Cultures in Contact, Chap. 7, and on an unpublished paper “Men and Women in the Pacific Migration System: the Images and the Data,” July 2007.
The Southern Song’s embrace of maritime trade would not be emulated by its dynastic successors, the 1430s signaled both the apogee and the end of China’s outward contacts. A. , 1970). 14 Wang Gungwu, “Semiterranean Southeast Asia: Between the Oceans,” unpubl. ms. 22 Map 2 dirk hoerder Maritime Spaces of the East Asian, South East Asian, and South Asian Seas historic developments and periodizations 23 Global Changes in Trade Protocols and Power Hierarchies, Early 1400s–1520s Across the globe, the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries witnessed fundamental changes in power relations on the seas and, as would become apparent only later, in terrestrial power hierarchies between the emerging colonizer powers in Europe and the many Asian societies.
Collection of Lu Ji (Chinese classical literature series) (中国古典文学基本丛书:陆机集) by 陆机