By John Hicks M.A. (Cantab.) (auth.)
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E. 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 001 673 kg. 18). 9. Valency. e. • Hence the alternative term relative atomic mass. EQUIVALENT WEIGHTS AND ATOMIC WEIGHTS 25 atomic weight ... n x combining weight, where n is necessarily an integer because atoms are chemically indivisible. Since the equivalent weight is a multiple of the combining weight, then atomic weight = n' x equivalent weight, where the integer n' is known as the valency of the element. Valency is a measure of the combining capacity of an element.
2, where the volume is plotted against the absolute temperature. The dotted portion cannot 273 0 T/K be verified experimentally FIG. 2 Charles' Law because gases tend to liquefy at such low temperatures. Like Boyle's law, Charles' law is not obeyed exactly by real gases. 12. 4. The Ideal Gas Equation. When Boyle's law and Charles' law are combined, the following relationship is obtained: v oc ! and v oc T p :. v oc '!. or pv "" kT where k is a constant for a fixed mass of one particular gas. P Thus if the volume of a gas is v1 at pressure p 1 and absolute temperature Tb and the volume of the same mass of gas is v1 at pressure p 1 and absolute temperature T 1, then: PsV• PtVt T1 - T1 • The derivation of this relationship from the two gas laws sometimes THE KINETIC THEORY 37 troubles students, so the following treatment, in which the change of a fixed mass of gas from conditions Ph vh T~> to p 1, v1, T1, is achieved in two distinct stages, may be helpful: First stage (at constant temperature): p 1 v1 T 1 --+ Pa v' T1 Second Gtage (at constant pressure): Pa v' Tl--+ Pa Va r.
He summarized his findings in 1801 in the statement that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures. e. p = PA + PB + Pc + · · · Although real gases do not obey the law exactly, particularly at high pressures, the deviations at ordinary pressures are so slight that they can usually be ignored. The partial pressure of a gas is easily calculated if its molecular proportion in the mixture (known as its mole fraction) is known, since it is given by the following expression: pA - p number of molecules of A total number of molecules in the mixture x THE KINETIC THEORY 39 where.
Comprehensive Chemistry by John Hicks M.A. (Cantab.) (auth.)