By Margherita Raineri, Erki Tammiksaar (auth.), Pierre Pontarotti (eds.)
This e-book provides 19 chosen contributions to the sixteenth Evolutionary Biology Meeting, which came about in September 2012 in Marseilles. The goals of those annual conferences, which assemble jointly best evolutionary biologists and different scientists, are to advertise the alternate of rules and to inspire interdisciplinary collaborations. the 1st bankruptcy bargains with the historical past of a superb discovery: the 1st experiments on ascidian and sea urchin egg fertilization. the rest contributions are grouped lower than the next categories:
· Evolutionary biology concepts
· Exobiology and the foundation of life
· Evolutionary mechanisms
Offering an updated assessment of modern findings within the box of evolutionary biology, this publication is a useful resource of knowledge for scientists, academics and complex students.
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This e-book offers 19 chosen contributions to the sixteenth Evolutionary Biology assembly, which came about in September 2012 in Marseilles. The goals of those annual conferences, which assemble jointly major evolutionary biologists and different scientists, are to advertise the trade of principles and to inspire interdisciplinary collaborations.
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Additional info for Evolutionary Biology: Exobiology and Evolutionary Mechanisms
Data are averages over 200 simulation runs. m. From Østman et al. (2012) 41 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 8 10 6 8 10 6 8 10 6 K Fig. 3 Mean epistasis of all pairs of substitutions increases with landscape ruggedness. Colors and data as in Fig. 2. From Østman et al. 01 0 Fig. 4 Attained fitness increases with landscape ruggedness to a point after which a decline is observed. Colors as in Fig. 2. From Østman et al. 2 s Fig. 5 Selection coefficients increase with landscape ruggedness. Colors as in Fig. 2. Open symbols are beneficial substitutions, and solid symbols are deleterious substitutions.
In this case, adaptation is straightforward, as an evolving population will eventually reach the top of the peak. When more than one peak is present, there is always epistasis present as well (Poelwijk et al. 2011). Take for example a fitness landscape in one dimension where fitness is a function of body-size. If small and 3 Effects of Epistasis and Pleiotropy on Fitness Landscapes 43 Fig. 6 Examples of smooth and rugged fitness landscapes in one dimension. The smooth landscape has a single peak whereas the rugged landscape has multiple local peaks.
The level of individuals when covering the whole evolutionary tree does span over quite a big range of organizational forms and functionalities, from monocellular to multicellular organisms, from autotrophs to heterotrophs. Ontic openness is inherent in all the organisms if for nothing else due to the complexity of the genome. But the constraints seem to change. The difference seems to be best understood in terms of changes in the way that communication takes place in the system. For this purpose, the code-duality perspective on the semiotic processes in biology as introduced by Hoffmeyer and Emmeche (1991) is convenient.
Evolutionary Biology: Exobiology and Evolutionary Mechanisms by Margherita Raineri, Erki Tammiksaar (auth.), Pierre Pontarotti (eds.)