Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Sensors: From Basis to by Candid Reig, Susana Cardoso, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay PDF

By Candid Reig, Susana Cardoso, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

ISBN-10: 364237171X

ISBN-13: 9783642371714

ISBN-10: 3642371728

ISBN-13: 9783642371721

Since the invention of the enormous magnetoresistance (GMR) impression in 1988, spintronics has been provided as a brand new expertise paradigm, presented by way of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2007. first and foremost utilized in learn heads of hard drive drives, and whereas disputing a section of the marketplace to the flash thoughts, GMR units have broadened their variety of utilization by way of becoming in the direction of magnetic box sensing functions in a major variety of situations. capability functions on the time of the invention became genuine within the final 20 years. Definitively, GMR was once born to stand.

In this feeling, chosen winning ways of GMR established sensors in several purposes: house, automobile, microelectronics, biotechnology … are accrued within the current publication. whereas preserving a realistic orientation, the basics in addition to the present developments and demanding situations of this expertise also are analyzed. during this experience, state-of-the-art contributions from academy and are available during the contents.

This booklet can be utilized by way of beginning researchers, postgraduate scholars and multidisciplinary scientists that allows you to have a reference textual content during this topical interesting field.

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Extra resources for Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Sensors: From Basis to State-of-the-Art Applications

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Anatomy of spin-transfer torque. : Mechanisms of spin-polarized current-driven magnetization switching. Physical Review Letters 88(23), 236601 (2002) 26 C. Baraduc, M. Chshiev, and B. : Currentinduced switching of domains in magnetic multilayer devices. : Generation and detection of phase-coherent current-driven magnons in magnetic multilayers. : Current-induced realignment of magnetic domains in nanostructured Cu/Co multilayer pillars. : Currentdriven magnetization reversal and spin-wave excitations in Co/Cu/Co pillars.

One advantage of this method when compared with conventional evaporation is the possibility to deposit from a target composed of different materials (alloy or mosaic target) [11]. Due to this, sputtering is one of the preferred techniques to deposit metallic and magnetic layers in GMR devices. It is also commonly used for the deposition of metallic nonmagnetic contacts and also insulating oxides. Ion Beam Sputter Deposition Although not as widely used as magnetron sputtering, the Ion Beam Deposition (IBD) system provides a good film thickness uniformity and higher deposition control due to the low deposition rates employed, enabling also epitaxial growth under particular conditions [12, 13] and higher deposition textures [14, 15].

Then resist developer is sprayed or poured over the substrate. If the resist is positive, exposed regions are rendered soluble and will therefore be removed during development (see Figure 8). In contrast, if the resist is negative, exposed regions will harden and remain after developing. In either case, upon developing, the sample is washed to stop the development process and dried, and the pattern is finally printed into the resist layer. 2 Pattern Transfer Techniques After designing the pattern into the resist, one has to transfer it into the underlying film, using either additive techniques such as lift-off, or subtractive methods as etching.

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Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Sensors: From Basis to State-of-the-Art Applications by Candid Reig, Susana Cardoso, Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay

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