By Carpick R.W., Eriksson M.A.
Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) used to be initially conceived as a mode for measuringatomic-scale floor topography. during the last 20 years, it has blossomed into anarray of strategies that may be used to acquire a wealthy number of info aboutnanoscale fabric homes. except for friction measurements, thesetechniques have characteristically relied on tip-sample interactions directed general tothe sample's floor. lately, researchers have explored numerous results coming up frominteractions parallel to surfaces, often by means of intentionally employing a modulated lateraldisplacement. in reality, a few parallel movement is ubiquitous to cantilever-based SPM, due tothe tilt of the cantilever. fresh reports, played in touch, noncontact, andintermittent-contact modes, offer new insights into homes comparable to structuralanisotropy, lateral interactions with floor positive aspects, nanoscale shear pressure and contactmechanics, and in-plane power dissipation. the certainty won from interpretingthis habit has effects for all cantilever-based scanning probe microscopies.
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Additional info for Measurements of In-Plane Material Properties with Scanning Probe Microscopy
The density representation has the advantage of directly showing the modal (most frequently occurring) particle size. 06 Fig. 2 Particle Size Distributions 23 D90, representing the 50%, 10% and 90% point in the cumulative undersize PSD, respectively. The size scale of the plots is chosen either linear or logarithmic, depending on the width of the size distribution. The linear scale makes interpolation easier and is commonly applied for narrow PSD’s. The logarithmic scale shows better resolution at the small size end of medium or broad size distributions and, thus, is commonly recommended for such distributions.
Part. Syst. Charact. 20 (2003) 25–38. 37. H. Heywood, Chem. Ind. 15 (1937) 149–154. 38. B. Jähne, Practical Handbook on Image Processing for Scientific Applications, 1997 CRC Press. 39. H. Kaye, Part. Part. Syst. Charact. 1 (1984) 14–21 and Powder Technol. 46 (1986) 245–254. 40. H. Kaye, A Random Walk through Fractal Dimensions, 1994 VCH. 41. H. Kaye, Direct Characterization of Small Particles; Chem Analysis Vol. 61, 1981 Wiley & Sons. 42. S. E. Shields, Powder Surface Area and Porosity, 1991 Wiley & Sons.
20). Meloy [47, 48] has suggested that useful information on a particle’s “fingerprint” can be obtained by expressing log Ak = log A1 – c·log k in graphical form. Here, c represents the slope of the straight line in a log–log plot relating the Fourier Fig. 3 Particle Shape 33 Fig. 5 0 90 180 theta 270 360 coefficients A to their harmonic number k, which can be used for characterization purposes. A problem with this approach is that it presupposes that the data are continuous, which is typically not the case.
Measurements of In-Plane Material Properties with Scanning Probe Microscopy by Carpick R.W., Eriksson M.A.