By Cosima Stubenrauch
Even though first defined via Winsor in 1954, the chemistry and expertise of microemulsions draws massive examine curiosity. till particularly lately, microemulsions weren't utilized in huge scale purposes as their section behaviour and microstructure weren't good understood and big quantities of surfactant have been wanted for his or her formula. With elevated realizing in their behaviour and considerably more desirable equipment for formulating and tuning their homes, microemulsions have gotten more and more necessary in a number business and learn purposes. overlaying either the advances that experience enabled more desirable realizing of microemulsions, and the purposes in more than a few commercial and study settings, and written by way of a first-class staff of participants, this e-book should be crucial examining for somebody utilizing, or contemplating utilizing microemulsions during their paintings. Written for study chemists, technologists and engineers within the nice, distinctiveness chemical compounds and polymer industries, and people in collage or govt laboratories, this publication can be fairly beneficial to these early on of their careers.
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Extra info for Microemulsions: Background, New Concepts, Applications, Perspectives
1 kT . 4 Scaling of the interfacial tension ab The similar shape of the interfacial tension curves – which is obviously independent of the tuning parameter – suggests a scaling of the ab -curves. e. around T m or ␦V,i,m ) seems to correlate directly with the height of the three-phase body ( T = T u − T l or ␦V,I = ␦V,i,u − ␦V,i,l ). Thus, after centring the ab (T)-curves by subtracting T m or ␦V,i,m the axis of the respective tuning parameter can be normalised by T/2 or ␦V,i /2, respectively.
It turned out that nearly all ionic surfactants which contain one single hydrocarbon chain are too hydrophilic to build up microemulsions. Such systems can only be driven through the phase inversion if an electrolyte and a co-surfactant is added to the mixture (see below and Fig. 11). g. sodium-bis-ethylhexylsulfosuccinate (AOT) [9, 67] and didodecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB) , no co-surfactant is necessary to tune the mean curvature of the amphiphilic film from positive to negative.
However, the first microemulsion found by Schulman more than 50 years ago was made of water, benzene, hexanol and the ionic-surfactant potassium oleate [1, 3]. Winsor also used the ionic-surfactant sodium decylsulphate and the co-surfactant octanol to micro-emulsify water/sodium sulphate and petrol ether . In the last 30 years, in-depth studies on ionic microemulsions have been carried out [7, 8, 65, 66]. It turned out that nearly all ionic surfactants which contain one single hydrocarbon chain are too hydrophilic to build up microemulsions.
Microemulsions: Background, New Concepts, Applications, Perspectives by Cosima Stubenrauch