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B Thermometric substance (gas, metal or alloy wire or film, salt, ... ) must be specified, for example: purity, composition, chemicophysical conditions. C The temperature range of the scale is limited by the applicability of the model within a stated accuracy. d See List of Acronyms. '''State of the art" are techniques available to date that, within a stated accuracy, ensure thermal equilibrium of the thermometer with the body whose temperature is to be measured, and limits the deviations from the defining function f( T).
The definition in the space of heat has been preferred because it closely approximates the numerical values obtained with gaseous substances- • This is the type of scale established empirically according to the old method of measuring high temperatures by observing the melting of the tips of a series of refractory cones having different melting temperatures. Chapter 1 24 already experimentally available in Kelvin's times-and, more specifically, because it matches exactly the physical properties of a model-state of the matter called "the ideal gas," more or less approximated by real gaseous low-density substances.
The elapsing-time speed is irrelevant, as far as the above assumption is valid. , 1984), as the phenomena are either far from equilibrium (subjected to forces far different from those required to maintain equilibrium) or irreversible (as common as: flow, diffusion, friction). In these cases the question is whether the temperature (and entropy) definitions still apply, and whether these concepts can be uniquely defined. ) equilibrium states. , Prigogine, 1954, 1962; De Groot and Mazur, 1962; Haase, 1969).
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