By Hirokazu Tsukahara, Kazunari Kaneko (eds.)
This quantity examines the position of oxidative tension within the pathology of various pediatric problems. It covers a variety of themes together with the chemistry and biology of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide, molecular biology of the enzymes producing those species, clinically worthwhile biomarkers for comparing oxidative tension prestige in people, and the pathophysiology, medical direction and administration of a number of pediatric problems, between others. The publication additionally describes present diagnostic instruments, laboratory tools and know-how for therapy and prevention of pediatric issues. It explores rising expertise and clinical functions together with discussions of biomarkers and antioxidants as healing brokers.
Written via a world workforce of specialists in either pediatrics and loose radical and antioxidant examine, Studies on Pediatric Disorders is a useful addition to the Oxidative rigidity in utilized simple learn and scientific Practice series.
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Extra info for Studies on Pediatric Disorders
Nitrate is formed in nature primarily by nitrification, the sequential oxidation of ammonia by ammonia- and nitrite- oxidizing bacteria as a means to obtain energy. Under anaerobic conditions some bacteria are capable of inducing protein complexes that act in series, in a process termed denitrification, to reduce nitrate to N2 gas. A portion of the nitrogen flowing through both nitrification and denitrification is released as NO. In animals, some nitrate ingested from foods is converted only to nitrite by bacteria in the mouth and gut.
At low levels of RNS, these reactions may function in vascular signaling-related processes through mechanisms such as modifying protein thiols, generating nitrated lipids and species which slowly regenerate NO. Whereas, as the levels of RNS increase, they are likely to drive pathophysiological processes through actions such as inactivating enzymes by nitrating protein tyrosine sites, oxidizing thiols, and depleting antioxidant systems such as mitochondrial or Mn-SOD. 2 Properties of Superoxide and Its Metabolism by Various Forms of SOD The free radical side of superoxide results in it reacting very rapidly with NO, and for it to react with itself generating both oxygen and H2O2.
NO production via the nitrite pathway is a common trait of the commensal bacteria of the intestine, especially among the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera . Though some commensal bacteria consume NO, overall there is net production of NO by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract [81, 82], which helps to explain the significant loss of intestinal NO emission in antibiotic-treated neonates compared to their untreated counterparts . Of the nitrate absorbed from the intestine approximately one-quarter is returned to the upper gastrointestinal tract via saliva, presumably to permit reduction of nitrate to nitrite by mouth flora.
Studies on Pediatric Disorders by Hirokazu Tsukahara, Kazunari Kaneko (eds.)