The history of the calculus and its conceptual development : by Carl B Boyer PDF

By Carl B Boyer

ISBN-10: 0486605094

ISBN-13: 9780486605098

This publication, for the 1st time, offers laymen and mathematicians alike with a close photograph of the historic improvement of 1 of the main momentous achievements of the human mind ― the calculus. It describes with accuracy and point of view the lengthy improvement of either the necessary and the differential calculus from their early beginnings in antiquity to their ultimate emancipation within the nineteenth century from either actual and metaphysical principles alike and their ultimate elaboration as mathematical abstractions, as we all know them at the present time, outlined when it comes to formal common sense by way of the belief of a restrict of an enormous sequence.
But whereas the significance of the calculus and mathematical research ― the middle of recent arithmetic ― can't be overemphasized, the price of this primary accomplished serious heritage of the calculus is going a ways past the subject material. This ebook will absolutely counteract the effect of laymen, and of many mathematicians, that the good achievements of arithmetic have been formulated from the start in ultimate shape. it is going to supply readers a feeling of arithmetic now not as a method, yet as a behavior of brain, and serve to bridge the distance among the sciences and the arts. it is going to additionally make abundantly transparent the fashionable realizing of arithmetic through exhibiting intimately how the recommendations of the calculus steadily replaced from the Greek view of the truth and immanence of arithmetic to the revised suggestion of mathematical rigor built through the nice nineteenth century mathematicians, which held that any premises have been legitimate as long as they have been in keeping with each other. it'll make transparent the guidelines contributed by way of Zeno, Plato, Pythagoras, Eudoxus, the Arabic and Scholastic mathematicians, Newton, Leibnitz, Taylor, Descartes, Euler, Lagrange, Cantor, Weierstrass, etc within the lengthy passage from the Greek "method of exhaustion" and Zeno's paradoxes to the trendy thought of the restrict self sufficient of feel event; and light up not just the tools of mathematical discovery, however the foundations of mathematical inspiration as well.

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Subsequently, this approach was extended to time-invariant systems [72] studied in [27], delay systems containing reverse time terms [73], and timevarying systems [83] considered in [67]. In [84] general Legendre wavelets were used to solve the optimal control problem of timevarying singular systems having a delay in state only. Looking at the historical developments on solving optimal control problem of nonlinear systems via the OF approach, we find that not much work has been reported. Lee and Chang [40] appear to be the first to study the optimal control problem of nonlinear systems using GOPs.

63) i=0 Also, m−1 m−1 Cj Lj (t) C(t)f(t) j =0 fk Lk (t). 64) k=0 Therefore [31] (2i + 1) gi = (tf − t0 ) = (2i + 1) (tf − t0 ) tf m−1 m−1 Cj fk Li (t)Lj (t)Lk (t)dt t0 j =0 k=0 m−1 m−1 πijk Cj fk . 69) j=0 with λij (τ ) = 0 for j > i. 71) i=0 where ⊗ is the Kronecker product [12] of matrices. Substituting Eqs. 71) into Eq. 73) Δ = diag 1, 3, . . , (2m − 1) /(tf − t0 ) ⎤ ⎡ λ00 (τ ) 0 0 ... 0 ⎥ ⎢ λ10 (τ ) λ11 (τ ) 0 ... 0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ λ20 (τ ) λ (τ ) λ (τ ) . . 0 21 22 Λ(τ ) = ⎢ ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ .. .. ⎦ ⎣ . .

1)m−1 which is called the reverse time operational matrix [91] of SLPs. 101) ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ ✐ “K15099” — 2012/8/24 — 10:29 ✐ ✐ Chapter 2: Orthogonal Functions and Their Properties 31 where F is the n × n Legendre spectrum of f (x(t), y(t)). 103) k=0 m−1 Pj (y(t)) ≈ k=0 where nik (x) and njk (y) are the elements of n × m nonlinear operational matrices N(x(t)) and N(y(t)), respectively. Substituting Eqs. 103) into Eq. 104) i=0 j =0 k=0 after using the disjoint property of BPFs. From Eq. 106) where n0 (x) = n1 (x) = 1, 1, .

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The history of the calculus and its conceptual development : (The concepts of the calculus) by Carl B Boyer


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