By Simon Houston Ph.D, Caroline E. Cameron Ph.D. (auth.), Monica E. Embers (eds.)
This ebook explores the various mechanisms in which the main popular Spirochetal pathogens persist in a fit immune-competent host. between them are the direct and oblique suppression of host immune indications, part and antigenic version, escaping reputation via host supplement proteins, and seclusion into immune privileged websites. We additionally discover antibiotic treatment for regulate of an infection, a baffling subject that lends itself to exalted interpretation.
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Extra info for The Pathogenic Spirochetes: strategies for evasion of host immunity and persistence
Reported the occasional survivor in mouse macrophages (Montgomery et al. 1993). The paradigm of B. burgdorferi as a mainly, if not exclusive, extracellular organism has primarily been due to the inability to detect intracellular spirochetes in infected tissues in vivo, either in animal models or in humans. Nevertheless, evidence from in vitro studies demonstrating the ability of B. burgdorferi to invade and inhabit cells internally suggests the probability that subpopulations of borreliae localize within cells during infections.
BMC Microbiol 8:82 Boardman BK, He M, Ouyang Z, Xu H, Pang X, Yang XF (2008) Essential role of the response regulator Rrp2 in the infectious cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infect Immun 76(9):3844–3853 Bockenstedt LK, Mao J, Hodzic E, Barthold SW, Fish D (2002) Detection of attenuated, noninfectious spirochetes in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice after antibiotic treatment. J Infect Dis 186(10):1430–1437 Brissette CA, Haupt K, Barthel D, Cooley AE, Bowman A, Skerka C, Wallich R, Zipfel PF, Kraiczy P, Stevenson B (2009a) Borrelia burgdorferi infection-associated surface proteins ErpP, ErpA, and ErpC bind human plasminogen.
Mol Microbiol 16:1067–1073 Radolf JD, Blanco DR, Miller JN, Lovett MA (1986) Antigenic interrelationship between endoflagella of Treponema phagedenis biotype Reiter and Treponema pallidum (Nichols): molecular characterization of endoflagellar proteins. Infect Immun 54:626–634 Radolf JD, Norgard MV, Schulz WW (1989) Outer membrane ultrastructure explains the limited antigenicity of virulent Treponema pallidum. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA86:2051–2055 Radolf JD, Arndt LL, Akins DR, Curetty LL, Levi ME, Shen Y, Davis LS, Norgard MV (1995) Treponema pallidum and Borrelia burgdorferi lipoproteins and synthetic lipopeptides activate monocytes/macrophages.
The Pathogenic Spirochetes: strategies for evasion of host immunity and persistence by Simon Houston Ph.D, Caroline E. Cameron Ph.D. (auth.), Monica E. Embers (eds.)