By D. Eisenberg, W. Kauzmann
The authors have correlated many experimental observations and theoretical discussions from the medical literature on water. subject matters lined contain the water molecule and forces among water molecules; the thermodynamic houses of steam; the constructions of the ices; the thermodynamic, electric, spectroscopic, and delivery houses of the ices and of liquid water; hydrogen bonding in ice and water; and types for liquid water. the most emphasis of the booklet is on bearing on the homes of ice and water to their constructions. a few heritage fabric in actual chemistry has been integrated with a view to make sure that the fabric is on the market to readers in fields akin to biology, biochemistry and geology in addition to to chemists and physicists.
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The authors have correlated many experimental observations and theoretical discussions from the clinical literature on water. issues lined contain the water molecule and forces among water molecules; the thermodynamic houses of steam; the buildings of the ices; the thermodynamic, electric, spectroscopic, and shipping homes of the ices and of liquid water; hydrogen bonding in ice and water; and versions for liquid water.
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Extra resources for The Structure and Properties of Water
We take 1-25 A for the van der Waals radius of hydrogen and 1-4 A for that of oxygen. The final potential functions are: where R' is the separation of the interacting atoms in Angstroms. The first of these equations is identical to the one derived by Hendrickson (1961). 13) provides a very rough indication of the dependence of the overlap repulsion between two water molecules on their mutual orientation. Consider two molecules with their oxygen nuclei 2-76 A apart, the separation of neighbouring molecules in ordinary ice I.
The units of potential energy may be converted to kcal/mol-of-interaction by multiplying by 1-44 X 1013. THE REAL VAPOUR 41 We have not yet treated the electrostatic forces between rotating molecules in a gas at a temperature T. It might be expected that electrostatic forces between rotating molecules vanish, since the forces are as strongly attracting in some orientations as they are repelling in others. In fact a net attraction arises because molecules are more likely to be found in orientations of low energy than in orientations of high energy.
It is this tetrahedral character of water, with two positive vertices—the hydrogens— and two negative vertices—the lone-pair hybrids—that gives rise to the tetrahedral coordination of water molecules in ice and liquid water. Recognition of this important structural feature of the water molecule led Pople (1951) and Lennard-Jones and Pople (1951) to postulate the point-charge model of Fig. 3 (6). s method. Those of the lone-pair hydrids, I' and I", are given by FIG. 5. Approximate directions of hybrid orbitals in water: 6' and b" are bond hybrids; I' and I" are lone-pair hybrids.
The Structure and Properties of Water by D. Eisenberg, W. Kauzmann