By Darwin V. Ellis
The 1st version of this publication demystified the method of good log research for college students, researchers and practitioners. within the 20 years seeing that, the has replaced significantly: technical staffs are smaller, and hydrocarbons are more durable to find, quantify, and bring. New drilling concepts have engendered new size units integrated into the drilling string. company restructuring and the "graying" of the team have brought on a lack in technical competence all in favour of the quest and exploitation of petroleum. The up to date second variation stories logging size know-how constructed within the final two decades, and expands the petrophysical purposes of the measurements.
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Additional resources for Well logging for Earth Scientists
In analyzing the set of basic logs available, the first step is to identify the clean and possibly permeable zones. This is done by an inspection of the SP and GR curves. In Fig. 18, the SP curve has been used to delineate four clean, permeable zones which have been labeled A through D. For further confirmation that these zones are relatively clean, an inspection of the GR curve also shows a minimum of natural radioactivity associated with them. 25 9600 ΦD ΦN Shale Indication 9700 Fig. 15 The signature of shale on a neutron and density combination log.
2 illustrates the region of space containing charges that will reach the plate 44 3 BASIC RESISTIVITY AND SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL on the right during a time t; the thickness of this region is vdri f t × t . The number collected during the time interval t is n i vdri f t t A , where n i is the particle density (number of charge carriers per unit volume) and A is the surface area of the electrode. The current is given by: n i vdri f t t A q. 8) since the electric field strength is given by the voltage drop per unit length and the separation of the two plates is l.
4 SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL Spontaneous potential was shown in the last chapter to be of considerable practical use in the identification of permeable zones. The origins of the spontaneous potential in wellbores involve both electrochemical potentials and the cation selectivity of shales. However, the underlying basis for the spontaneous potential is the fundamental process of diffusion – the self-diffusion of the dissolved ions in the fluids in the borehole and in the formation. Electrochemical potentials of interest to the generation of the spontaneous potential are the liquid junction potential and the membrane potential.
Well logging for Earth Scientists by Darwin V. Ellis